Esta timeline foi obtida junto ao site Rampant Scotland, que disponibiliza 3700 paginas web relacionadas a escócia e aos escoceses. Eventos posteriores a 1600 serão publicados na segunda parte deste post. não duvido que em meus estudos sobre tipografia ela ainda venha a ser util... e se voce estiver inmteressado em saber a genealogia (e um pouco de história) de todos os reis de todas as dinastias das ilhas britanicas a dica é este livrinho aqui, que já pertenceu a Winston Churchill: o
A REMARK on the LIVES of all the KINGS Of This ISLE
From the Year of the World 2855 Unto the Year of Grace 1660
Sir WINSTON CHURCHILL
LONDON: Printed by The Roycroft to be Sold By Francis Eglesfield. MDCLXXV. 1675. RARE FIRST EDITION. FOLIO. 13.0" x 8.0" inches. (LxB). Pp. (vi), 362, 1 page table. Illustrated with 92 engraved coat of arms. Title page lettered in red and black with 1/2 page vignette. Bound in the original full mottled calf leather binding (rebacked). This is Churchill's classic, illustrated history of the English Royalty to the Time of King Charles II. A history of the Kings of England from earliest Roman rule to the Reformation. The coat of arms for each ruler is illustrated by a handsome engraving next to his history. There are a total of 92 engraved arms in the book as well as numerous engraved initials and chapter headings. Churchill- the "Cavalier Colonel"- was a staunch royalist and served as a captain of horse during the Civil War. His loyalty cost him his home and lands in Devonshire but he regained his position during the Reformation, serving in Parliament and various government positions. He was the father of John Churchill, the Duke of Marlborough. A classic work. There are numerous close-up pictures of the contents given below; please click on them for a detailed description (See Scans below). Please take some time to view the 50+ pictures in detail, in order to gain a full idea of the contents and condition.
You will find in these chronology pages the precise dates of over 700 historical events which took place over the last 2,000 years of Scottish history. Links are also provided to over 400 related articles where you can obtain more information on the events - and the people - that made Scotland what it is today. Note that where the same subject appears more than once in this chronology, alternative links are often provided to give a broader picture.
January 24 76
Birth of Publius Aelius Hadrianus, who built Hadrian's Wall to cut off Scotland from the rest of Britain.
December 7 521
Day on which St. Columba was reputedly born in Donegal, Ireland. After being banished to Scotland, following battles over monastic possessions, he established a monastery on Iona. Columba is credited with converting King Bridei, the leader of the Picts in Scotland, to Christianity.
May 12 563
Community of Iona founded by Colum Cille (St Columba) from Ireland.
June 9 597
Colum Cille died.
January 13 603
Death of St Mungo, patron saint of Glasgow (and also known as St Kentigern).
May 20 685
Battle of Dunnichen (also known as Nechtansmere), south of Forfar in Angus, as a result of which the Picts stopped the advance northwards of the Angles of Northumbria.
September 23 704
Death of St Adamnan, biographer of St Columba.
September 1 714
Death of St Giles, patron saint of Edinburgh (and Elgin).
February 13 858
Kenneth MacAlpin, King of Dalriada and the Picts, died at Forteviot.
March 25 1005
Malcolm II ascended the throne.
November 25 1034
Malcolm II died at Glamis, succeeded by Duncan I.
August 14 1040
King Duncan I killed in battle at Pitgavney, near Elgin, by his cousin Macbeth.
August 15 1057
Macbeth killed in battle by Malcolm at Lumphanan, near Aberdeen.
August 15 1057
Lulach, Macbeth's stepson, ascended the throne and was crowned at Scone.
March 17 1058
King Lulach killed by Malcolm III at Essier, Strathbogie.
April 25 1058
Malcolm III (Canmore) crowned.
November 13 1093
King Malcolm III (Canmore), last of the Celtic kings was killed at the Battle of Alnwick. Succeeded by Donald III.
November 12 1094
King Duncan II died at Battle of Monthechin, Kincardine.
June 21 1098
Priory at Coldingham founded.
January 8 1107
King Alexander I crowned.
April 23 1124
King Alexander I died at Stirling Castle, succeeded by David I.
August 22 1138
Battle of the Standard at Northallerton in which King David I was defeated by the English.
April 9 1139
Second Treaty of Durham in which David I is recognised as King of an independent Scotland by King Stephen of England.
March 20 1141
King Malcolm IV born.
May 24 1153
King David I died at Carlisle.
June 12 1153
Malcolm IV crowned at Scone
December 9 1165
King Malcolm IV died at Jedburgh Castle, succeeded by William I.
December 24 1165
King William I (Lion) crowned at Scone.
July 13 1174
King William surprised and captured by the English at Alnwick.
August 24 1198
Alexander II, son of King William I, born.
December 4 1214
King William I (Lion) died at Stirling Castle and was succeeded by his son Alexander II.
November 21 1218
A Bull of Pope Honorius III affirmed the independence of the Catholic Church in Scotland.
September 4 1241
King Alexander III born at Roxburgh.
July 8 1249
King Alexander II died on Isle of Kerrara, Oban Bay.
July 13 1249
King Alexander III crowned at Scone
October 2 1263
Battle of Largs - Scots defeated the Vikings who were attempting to invade.
December 15/16 1263
King Haakon of Norway (which at that time included Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles) died on Orkney at midnight on 15/16 December.
July 2 1266
Treaty of Perth, Norway renounces claim on the Hebrides.
July 11 1274
Robert the Bruce born.
August 22 1282
Devorgilla, Countess of Galloway founded Balliol College, Oxford. She was mother of John Balliol (who acceded to the Scottish throne in 1292).
October 14 1285
Second marriage of King Alexander III (to Yolanda de Dreux).
March 19 1286
King Alexander III died after crossing the river Forth to Fife at Queensferry.
March 19 1286
Queen Margaret, Maid of Norway (daughter of King Erik II and grand-daughter of Alexander III) inherits the throne the throne.
January 21 1290
Sweetheart Abbey, near Dumfries, founded by Devorguilla, mother of John Balliol.
September 26 1290
Queen Margaret, Maid of Norway ("Eiriksdotter") died, en route from Norway to Scotland.
May 30 1291
Claimants to the Scottish throne met King Edward I of England at Norham on Tweed to resolve succession.
November 17 1292
John Balliol acceded to Scottish throne.
November 30 1292
John Balliol ("Toom Tabard" or "Turncoat") crowned.
April 1 1295
Robert Bruce, "The Great Competitor" and grandfather of King Robert the Bruce, died.
October 23 1295
Treaty between King John Balliol of Scotland and King Philippe IV of France which promised mutual help against the English - the start of the "Auld Alliance".
March 30 1296
King Edward I of England over-ran Berwick-upon-Tweed.
April 27 1296
Scots defeated by the English defenders of Dunbar Castle at Battle of Dunbar.
July 8 1296
King John Balliol abdicated at Montrose.
August 8 1296
King Edward I removed to England the Stone of Destiny on which generations of Scottish kings had been crowned.
August 28 1296
Edward I of England held a parliament at Berwick to which he summoned all Scottish landholders to sign the Ragman Roll.
September 11 1297
Battle of Stirling Bridge, Wallace (as famously portrayed by Mel Gibson in "Braveheart") defeats Edward I.
October 11 1297
Letter from Wallace and Moray to the mayors of Lubeck and Hamburg saying that "The Kingdom of Scotland has, by God's Grace, recovered by battle from the power of the English".
July 22 1298
The army of the English King Edward I, using longbows for the first time, defeated the Scots led by Sir William Wallace at Battle of Falkirk.
August 23 1301
King Edward I lodged at the Convent of the Dominicans (the Black Friars) in the High Street, Glasgow.
February 23 1303
Battle of Roslin in which a Scots army of 8,000, led by Sir Simon Fraser, Sinclair of Rosslyn and the Red Comyn, surprised an English army of 30,000 led by Sir John Seagrave and defeated them.
May 20 1303
France and England make peace, releasing forces to attack Scotland.
July 20 1304
Stirling Castle, the last of the Scottish castles to be captured by Edward I.
August 3 1305
William Wallace betrayed and handed over to the English.
August 23 1305
William Wallace executed
February 10 1306
Robert the Bruce murdered Red Comyn.
March 25 1306
King Robert I ("The Bruce") crowned at Scone.
June 19 1306
Army of Robert the Bruce routed at Methven.
August 11 1306
Battle of Dalry, Robert I, attacked and defeated John MacDougall of Lorne, kinsman of John Comyn.
September 7 1306
Sir Simon Fraser, the "Scottish Patriot", who fought alongside Wallace and Robert the Bruce, was executed by the English and his head displayed in London alongside that of Wallace.
May 10 1307
Battle of Loudon Hill, near Darvel. King Robert I comprehensively defeated English forces under de Valence.
July 7 1307
Death of King Edward I of England.
December 24 1307
Battle of Inverurie in which Robert the Bruce defeated the troops of John Comyn. (The date for this battle is disputed by historians).
August 15 1308
Battle of the Pass of Brander in which John MacDougall of Lorne who was supporting King Edward II, was defeated by King Robert I.
November 8 1308
Scholar and philosopher John Duns Scotus died. His dry subtleties led to the word "Duns" or "dunce" meaning dull and incapable of learning. Beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1993.
March 16 1309
King Robert the Bruce convened his first parliament, at St Andrews.
July 16 1309
James Stewart, High Steward of Scotland, died.
October 29 1312
Treaty of Inverness with Norway.
February 7 1313
Robert the Bruce captured Dumfries.
May 18 1313
Robert the Bruce invades Isle of Man.
June 24 1314
Robert the Bruce defeated Edward II at Battle of Bannockburn.
September 12 1315
Thomas Dun, a privateer, sailed into Holyhead, captured an English ship and over-ran the island of Anglesay.
March 2 1316
King Robert II born in Paisley.
May 2 1316
Edward Bruce, brother of King Robert the Bruce, crowned High King of All Ireland.
March 28 1318
King Robert the Bruce captured Berwick on Tweed.
October 14 1318
Edward Bruce, brother of Robert the Bruce, killed in a battle near Dundalk, Ireland.
April 6 1320
Declaration of Arbroath - "For we fight not for glory nor for riches nor for honour, but only and alone for freedom, which no good man surrenders but with his life".
March 5 1324
King David II born.
March 17 1328
Treaty of Edinburgh between King Robert I and Edward III which recognised Scotland's independence, ending the 30 years of Wars of Independence.
June 7 1329
Robert the Bruce died, Cardross Castle.
November 24 1331
David II (aged 7) crowned at Scone.
July 20 1332
Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray and Regent of Scotland, died at Musselburgh. Donald, Earl of Mar, appointed Regent in his place.
August 12 1332
Battle of Dupplin near Perth in which Edward Balliol defeated the Regent, Earl of Mar.
September 24 1332
Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol, crowned at Scone. He was deposed by supporters of David II in December 1332, restored in 1333, deposed again in 1334, restored in 1335 and finally deposed in 1341.
November 23 1332
Edward Balliol formally acknowledged King Edward III of England as his feudal superior.
June 8 1333
King Edward III orders the capture of the Isle of Man from the Scots.
August 14 1337
King Robert III born at Scone.
June 16 1338
Siege of Dunbar Castle by the English was raised.
April 17 1341
Edinburgh Castle captured from the English.
May 31 1367
King Robert III married Annabel Drummond.
February 22 1371
King David II died at Edinburgh Castle.
March 27 1371
King Robert II, nephew of King David II, crowned at Scone, aged 55.
October 28 1371
Treaty of Vincennes creating a Franco-Scottish alliance.
April 4 1373
Parliament held by King Robert II at Scone, resolved that his son, the Earl of Carrick should succeed his father as King (as Robert III although he was baptised John).
April 4 1384
John of Gaunt, son of Edward III attacks Scotland.
August 5 1388
James, Earl Douglas, died out of sight of his army, in a bush, at Battle of Otterburn in which Scots defeat Henry Percy, (Hotspur) but with the loss of the Earl of Douglas.
June 17 1390
Wolf of Badenoch burns Elgin Cathedral.
August 14 1390
King Robert III crowned at the Augustinian abbey of Scone.
September 28 1396
"Battle of the Clans" between clans Chattan and Kay on the North Inch, Perth, in front of King Robert III.
June 2 1398
Prince Henry St Clair (Sinclair) landed in Nova Scotia, having sailed from Orkney.
April 3 1401
Murder of Duke of Rothesay, heir of Robert III.
September 14 1402
Scots led by 4th Earl of Douglas defeated at the Battle of Homildon Hill by English army led by Percy 'Hotspur'.
March 30 1406
King James I captured by English near Flamborough Head on his way to France.
April 4 1406
King Robert III died and James I ascended the throne (but was not crowned until 1424 as he was a prisoner of the English).
July 24 1411
Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie in which Donald, Lord of the Isles fought an indecisive but bloody battle against the Earl of Mar. At the time, both sides thought they had lost, their descendants both thought they had won.
25 February 1412
Bishop Henry Wardlaw established St Andrews as a "university" although it was not officially inaugurated until 4 February 1414 when a Bull of Foundation was promulgated by Pope Benedict XIII.
March 22 1421
Scottish and French troops under the command of the Earl of Buchan defeated English forces at Baugé in Anjou, France.
December 4 1423
Treaty of London, releasing James I from his 18 years captivity in England.
February 2 1424
James I married Lady Jane Beaufort, daughter of the Earl of Somerset, in London.
May 2 1424
King James I crowned at Scone
May 26 1424
The parliament convened by King James I approved the arrest of a number of the Scottish nobility - and also banned the playing of football.
October 16 1430
King James II born.
February 20 1437
King James I murdered in Perth by a group led by Sir Robert Graham.
March 25 1437
Coronation of King James II at Kelso Abbey.
November 29 1440
6th Earl of Douglas and his brother David murdered at the "Black Dinner" in Edinburgh Castle in front of the 10-year-old King James II.
October 23 1448
Battle of Sark in which an invading English force under the Earl of Northumberland was repulsed by the Scots led by Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormonde, near Gretna.
December 31 1448
Franco-Scottish alliance renewed at Tours.
August 27 1450
St Salvator's College, St Andrew's University, founded.
January 7 1451
Glasgow University founded at the request of James II and Bishop Turnbull.
July 10 1451
King James III born at Stirling.
February 22 1452
King James II killed William Douglas at Stirling.
March 6 1457
King James II decreed in an Act of Parliament that there should be regular target practice and military parades and that "football and golf be utterly cried down and not used". This was the first time that the games had been mentioned in Scottish documents.
August 3 1460
King James II killed by an exploding cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle.
August 10 1460
King James III crowned at Kelso Abbey.
February 13 1462
Treaty of Westminster-Ardtornish between the Lord of the Isles and Edward IV, the King of England.
July 13 1469
King James III married Margaret of Denmark.
February 20 1472
Orkney and Shetland annexed from Norway.
August 17 1472
The see of St Andrews became an archbishopric by a bull of Pope Sixtius IV.
March 17 1473
King James IV born.
August 24 1482
Berwick on Tweed finally ceded to England (Edward IV) after changing hands 12 times.
June 11 1488
Battle of Sauchieburn during which King James III died attempting to subdue a group of rebel barons.
November 29 1489
Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England was born. She later married King James IV of Scotland in the "Union of the Thistle and the Rose". It was due to her bloodline that King James VI of Scotland was able to inherit the crown of England in 1603, after the death of his cousin, Queen Elizabeth I.
January 9 1492
The Diocese of Glasgow was elevated to an Archdiocese by Pope Innocent VII.
February 10 1495
A bull from Pope Alexander VI confirmed the foundation of Aberdeen University.
December 17 1502
Marriage contract between James IV and Margaret Tudor signed by King James.
May 28 1503
Papal Bull signed by Pope Alexander VI confirming the marriage of King James IV and Margaret Tudor and the "Treaty of Everlasting Peace" between Scotland and England.
August 8 1503
King James IV married Margaret Tudor, daughter of King Henry VII of England. The marriage was known as the Union of the Thistle and the Rose.
July 1 1505
Edinburgh Council granted a charter to the "Barber Surgeons" enabling them to practise surgery within the city boundary and creating the basis for the Royal College of Surgeons.
October 9 1506
King James IV ratified the Charter incorporating the Surgeons and Barbers.
September 14 1507
Edinburgh merchants granted exclusive privilege of running a printing press.
October 11 1511
Ship "Great Michael" launched for King James IV.
April 10 1512
King James V born.
September 21 1513
King James V crowned at Stirling Castle.
November 22 1515
Birth of Mary of Guise, the French Queen Consort of James V. She was regent of Scotland during the minority reign of her daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots.
May 1 1522
England declared war on both Scotland and France.
July 25 1526
Battle of Melrose in which Sir Walter Scott of Buccleuch attempted to rescue King James V from the clutches of Douglas, Earl of Angus.
February 29 1528
Patrick Hamilton, a Protestant martyr, was burned at the stake in St Andrews.
July 5 1530
Border reiver John Armstrong and 50 of his men were hanged for blackmail at Carlanrig by King James V.
May 17 1532
King James V established paid judges to sit as the Court of Session, the highest civil court in Scotland.
January 1 1537
King James V married Magdalene of France.
February 17 1540
King James V passed a law which recognised Scotland's gipsies.
November 24 1542
Rout of Solway Moss in which King James V sent a force of 10,000 into England which was defeated by an English force led by Sir Thomas Wharton.
December 8 1542
Mary, Queen of Scots, born Linlithgow Palace. "It cam wi' a lass; it gang wi' a lass"
December 14 1542
James V died at Falkland Palace.
July 1 1543
Treaty of Greenwich, between Henry VIII and Earl of Arran, Regent of Scotland, agreeing betrothal of Mary Queen of Scots (aged 6 months) and Edward Prince of Wales (aged 6 years). The treaty was repudiated by the Scots Parliament.
September 9 1543
Mary Queen of Scots crowned at Stirling Castle.
May 7 1544
Earl of Hereford invaded Scotland on behalf of Henry VIII in an attempt to force the Scots to agree to the marriage of Mary to Henry's son, Edward. This is known as the "Rough Wooing".
July 3 1544
Battle of the Shirts between members of the Clan Fraser and Clans Ranald, Cameron and Donald. One of the bloodiest clan battles - only 12 men out of 1,000 combatants are said to have survived.
February 27 1545
Battle of Ancrum Moor in which Scottish forces, led by Earl of Douglas, defeated an English army twice their size.
August 1 1545
Birth of Andrew Melville, "true father of Presbyterianism in Scotland".
March 1 1546
George Wishart, a Protestant martyr, was burned at the stake in St Andrews.
May 30 1546
David Beaton, Archbishop of St Andrews, assassinated.
September 10 1547
English defeated Scots at Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, near Edinburgh. The battle was sparked by English demands that Edward VI of England (aged 10) should marry Mary Queen of Scots (aged 5) - an event known as the "Rough Wooing". It is estimated that 15,000 Scots were killed, 1500 captured and English losses amounted to only 500.
July 7 1548
Treaty of Haddington, between France and Scotland, confirming the betrothal of Mary Queen of Scots and Dauphin of France.
October 4 1552
Members of the Kerr family from the Scottish Borders and enemies of the neighbouring Scott family, attacked and killed Sir Walter Scott (an ancestor of the writer) in the High Street of Edinburgh.
April 28 1558
Walter Mylne, burned to death in St Andrews, the last pre-Reformation martyr.
July 7 1559
John Knox became the first Protestant minister appointed in Edinburgh.
July 10 1559
King Henri of France died. Mary Queen of Scots' husband, Francis, becomes King of France.
February 27 1560
Second Treaty of Berwick between England and Scotland, providing English assistance to remove French forces of Mary of Guise from Scotland.
June 6 1560
Treaty of Edinburgh between France and England, recognising sovereignty of Mary Queen of Scots and her first husband Francis II.
June 11 1560
Mary of Lorraine, Queen of King James V and mother of Mary, Queen of Scots, died in Edinburgh Castle.
August 11 1560
Latin Mass prohibited in Scotland by Parliament as Protestant faith gained the ascendancy.
December 20 1560
First General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
August 19 1561
Mary Queen of Scots lands at Leith on her return from France, after the death of her husband, King Francis II
October 28 1562
Battle of Corrichie, Earl of Moray defeated Catholic Gordons of Huntly who were attacking Aberdeen.
February 14 1565
Mary Queen of Scots meets Lord Darnley for the first time. They married in July 1565.
March 9 1566
David Rizzio murdered by Ruthven in the Palace of Holyrood.
June 19 1566
Mary Queen of Scots gives birth to the future King James VI of Scotland and I of England.
April 24 1567
First printed book ever published in Gaelic. It was "Forms of Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Catechism of the Christian Faith," translated from English by Bishop John Carsewell of the Isles.
May 15 1567
Mary, Queen of Scots, married Earl of Bothwell (at 4am).
June 15 1567
Mary Queen of Scots' last night in Edinburgh, at the house of Sir Simon Preston, the Lord Provost, on the Royal Mile, prior to her imprisonment at Loch Leven castle two days later.
July 29 1567
King James VI (aged 13 months) crowned at the Church of the Holy Rude, beside Stirling Castle, following the abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots, five days earlier.
August 22 1567
James Stewart, Earl of Moray and a half-brother of Mary Queen of Scots, proclaimed Regent of Scotland.
May 2 1568
Mary Queen of Scots escaped from Loch Leven castle.
May 13 1568
Mary, Queen of Scots, defeated at Battle of Langside.
May 16 1568
Mary Queen of Scots sailed from Port Mary across the Solway Firth to exile in England.
October 1 1568
The Bannatyne Manuscript, the most extensive collection of early Scottish poetry in existence, was published by George Bannatyne, an Edinburgh merchant.
January 23 1570
James Stewart, the Regent Moray on the abdication of Mary Queen of Scots, murdered in Linlithgow, triggering civil war.
July 12 1570
Earl of Lennox appointed Regent of Scotland.
September 3 1571
Earl of Lennox, Regent of Scotland, murdered. Earl of Mar appointed Regent but he died in October 1572.
April 1 1571
Dumbarton Castle, under siege since January 1570, captured by Captain Thomas Crawford scaling the walls.
November 24 1572
John Knox, leading reformer of Church of Scotland, died.
August 3 1573
Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange executed, after defending Edinburgh Castle on behalf of Mary Queen of Scots from May 1568 to May 1573.
July 7 1575
The skirmish called "The Raid of the Redeswire", took place between Scottish and English borderers.
July 10 1576
First Bible (New Testament) printed in Scotland by Bassandyne.
September 14 1580
Birth of Robert Gordon of Straloch, Aberdeen, cartographer.
June 2 1581
James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, beheaded in Edinburgh Grassmarket, accused of the murder of Lord Darnley.
September 28 1581
George Buchan, humanist, poet, historian and tutor of King James VI, died.
April 14 1582
University of Edinburgh founded.
July 3 1582
James Crichton of Eliock, the original "Admirable Crichton", died in a brawl in Mantua. Soldier, scholar, poet and athlete, he was a graduate of St Andrews University and a tutor of King James VI.
August 22 1582
James VI (aged nearly 8) abducted and taken to the Castle of Ruthven by the Earls of Mar and Gowrie - the so-called "Ruthven Raid".
June 27 1583
James VI escaped from Castle Ruthven.
December 13 1585
William Drummond, poet, born.
June 16 1586
Mary, Queen of Scots recognised Philip II of Spain as her heir.
February 8 1587
Mary Queen of Scots beheaded at Fotheringay Castle.
February 7 1592
Earl of Moray murdered at Donibristle.
June 5 1592
An Act of the Scottish Parliament came into force "concerning the Office of Lyoun King of Armes and his brether Heraldis" creating the best regulated system of armorial bearings in Europe.
April 2 1593
Marischal College, second University in Aberdeen, founded.
December 6 1593
Battle of Dryffe Sands between the Border families of Maxwell and Johnstone, one of the bloodiest "clan" fights.
October 3 1594
Battle of Glenlivet, George Gordon, Earl of Huntly, defeated a Royalist force under 7th Earl of Argyll.
September 15 1595
City Baillie shot when Edinburgh High School pupils rioted when refused a holiday.
Royal Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons granted its charter by King James VI.