terça-feira, março 20

capitulares hebraicas

anteriormente eu havia postado um comentário sobre a esquisitice que é uma capitular ornamental árabe.

hoje vamos mostrar aqui as capitulares ornamentais hebraicas de uma obra muito importante da religião judaica, a Sefer Aruch (Basel 1599). nas duas primeiras imagens vemos o mesmo princípio estético que é aplicado as capitulares do alfabeto latino. o resultado a primeira vista é identico ao com o que estamos acostumados em nosso alfabeto. é importante lembrar que de fato o alfabeto hebraico e o latino tem a mesma origem histórica: o desenvolvimento da escrita alfabética fenícia, oriunda por sua vez (é uma teoria) de um proto-alfabeto desenvolvido no Sinai por funcionários autóctones da admininistração egípica na região (ver Douglas MacMurtrie).

as próximas duas gravuras mostram um resultado bem diferente...

sobre a obra e os autores:

COMPLETE 332 pages. 28 x 19 cm. Overall very fine condition. Professional restoration to title and first few pages. Original vellum binding.

The book
The Aruch authored by Rabbi Nathan ben Rabbi Yechiel Anav, explains legal terms, gives etymologies and explanations of foreign (including those in Aramaic, Latin, Greek, Arabic, and Persian) words, and makes the Talmud more explicable to students. The Aruch thus provides traditions from North Africa, Babylonia, and Germany. It is tremendously helpful to talmudic scholars in helping them explicate arcane or foreign words and terms Author of the Aruch (order), a lexicon of Hebrew. It explains the translations, various interpretations and difficulties surrounding words taken from the entire Bible, Talmud, Midrash and Targums in Hebrew and Aramaic. He is frequently quoted by Rashi.

The Author
Rabbi Nathan ben Yechiel Anav was the greatest Italian Jewish scholar in the 11th century. As a child, he studied with his father, the founder of the Yeshiva in Rome. He also studied in Narbonne, learning the German/French talmudic disciplines. In 1070, at the death of his father, Rabbi Nathan joined his two brothers Rabbi Abraham and Rabbi Daniel to become the teachers at the Rome Yeshiva. All three wrote responsa; some scholars believe that he even answered a question written to him by Rashi. Rabbi Nathan was known for his generosity; he and his brothers financed the building of a magnificent synagogue and mikvah in Rome. While head of the yeshiva, Rabbi Nathan wrote his famous lexicon of the Talmud and major midrash collections, the Aruch.
Rabbi Nathan traced his family back to the scholars who were brought to Rome by Titus in 73 CE.

Rabbi Shmuel Archevolti
Aan excellent Talmudist and Italian grammarian, and poet of the sixteenth century, who loved the Hebrew language and delighted in its poetical phrasing and shading, was disinclined to uphold the ideas advanced by Rabbi Judah ha-Levi, who, though one of the greatest Hebrew poets, did not treat Biblical subjects poetically, maintaining that they did not readily lend themselves to such treatment. Rabbi Archevolti held the opposite view, and in respectful terms wrote against his famous predecessor, employing the Talmudic bit of satire, "The dough must be bad indeed if the baker says it is." Rabbi Shmuel Archevolti was born in Cesena, Italy 1530 ca and passed away in Padua 1611.

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