quinta-feira, março 8

timeline da tipografia fraktur na Alemanha

dentro dos muitos posts que vamos publicando sobre a escrita e a tipografia fraktur este aqui traz uma timeline sobre a tipografia fraktur na Alemanha, e foi obtida neste site alemão que fala sobre a lingua alemã em geral.

Chronological History of Blackletter/Fraktur Typeface

1450-55 Gutenberg's 42-line Bible in Latin uses an angular, narrow blackletter typeface modeled after the handwritten Gothic Miniscule or Textura style.

1450-1500 The Incunabula period, the era of the first book printing and early type development in Western Europe

1464 Two German typographers from Mainz, Conrad Sweynheym and Arnold Pannartz, create the first true "Antiqua" (Roman/Latin) typeface in Subiaco, Italy. Beginning in 1467 they print books in Rome using their new Roman type, setting up a long struggle in Germany between blackletter/Gothic type and Roman Antiqua.

1475-77 Bastarda type (more curves than Textura) by Parisian typographer Pasquier Bonhomme, which is similar to...

1485 The Schwabacher typeface, a more rounded form of Bastarda, is created by Friedrich Creussner in Nürnberg.

1507 fractura germanica type by Leonhard Wagner (1453-1522) in Augsburg

1508 Fraktur, a further refinement of the Schwabacher type style, is created by order of Maximilian I (1493-1519)

1513 Gebetbuch ("Prayer Book") published with Fraktur type with illustrations by Albrecht Dürer

1525 Refined Fraktur by Nürnberg printer Johannes Andreae

1530 The French typographer Claude Garamond designs a form of Antiqua known as "French renaissance Antiqua" or "Medieval."

1605 The Relation in Strassburg (then in Germany, now in France) is considered the first true newspaper ever printed. It is first published in the summer of 1605 by Johann Carolus—in German using Fraktur type. Before buying a printing press for his newspaper, Carolus had issued weekly handwritten summaries of local political events.

1618-1648 The Thirty Years War slows typeface and printing development in the German-speaking region.

1650 In Leipzig Timotheus Ritzsch (1614-1678) begins publishing the "Einkommende Zeitungen." His newspaper appears several times per week until Ritzsch's government permit expires in 1652. Leipzig has also become Germany's main center of the printing industry.

1660 On January 1 Ritzsch, with a new permit, begins publishing a daily newspaper in Leipzig. Under the name Einlauffende Nachricht von Kriegs- und Welthändeln, the world's first daily newspaper appears six days per week, later every day of the week.

1800-1941 The so-called Fraktur-Streit (Fraktur debate) continues. Both Fraktur and Antiqua (Latin) type are used in German publications, but Fraktur continues to be the main German typeface—even after a Nazi ban in 1941.

1908-1929 New "modern" versions of Fraktur (Mars- and Koch-Fraktur) designed by German typographer Rudolf Koch (1876-1934).

1911 In a close vote the German Reichstag (parliament) rejects an effort to switch to Antiqua as the official German script/typeface; the proposal was defeated by only three votes, 85 to 82.

1926-1932 Designers influenced by the Hungarian László Moholy-Nagy at the Bauhaus in Dessau create modern non-Fraktur typefaces intended to be "an instrument of communication" that is as practical and functional as the Bauhaus architectural and industrial designs. The Nazis will later close down the Bauhaus as "un-German" in 1932.

1928 Pioneering German typographer Paul Renner (1878-1956) designs the modern-looking Latin typeface known as "Futura." Renner considered Roman type to be more "German" than Fraktur, tracing Antiqua back to Charlemagne (Karl der Große). In 1933 Renner is arrested by the Gestapo.

1934 In a speech at a Nazi cultural conference in 1934 Adolf Hitler argues against the use of Fraktur, but his government does not act to eliminate its use.

1941 On Jan. 3 Martin Bormann issues a secret Schrifterlass memo banning the use of Fraktur type in German books and periodicals.

1945 The Allies use Fraktur type on stamps, money, and in post-war publications in occupied Germany.

1958 Introduction of the sans-serif typeface known as Helvetica. German publishers favor its use, and it is still popular in Germany today.

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